On the eve of its creation Pakistan faced a number of stupendous problems which hardly had any parallel in the history of the world especially of any newly born state. The most serious disagreement between India and Pakistan concerned the state of Jammu and Kashmir. “Military opinion is unanimous that this general principle for the division of movable assets is so obviously found on common sense and practical considerations as to be incontestable. Next were the more numerous, but still pitiable small, band of well-trained Muslim officials who held senior – but rarely the most senior posts in all India Service such as Police, Accounts, Forests, and Engineering. The total installed capacity in the country at the time of partition was only 75,028 k.w., but lack of repairs and of competent staff greatly reduced the actual capacity. It was infact a chieftain, though an independent one, and was contiguous to Junagadh. (Ref "7"), East Bengal being an exclusively raw jute producing area, Calcutta, a home of jute industry and districts of Nadia and Kutli, should have been awarded to Pakistan. Estimates of the death toll vary considerably, but it is likely that as many as a million men, women, and children died as a result of the violence or the rigors of the long journey. (Ref "107"), Out of the 40 ordnance depots containing reserves of all types of stores, equipment, ammunition, vehicles, only 5 small depots were situated in pakistan territory. The Government of India sent troops to occupy Mangrol in spite of a clear understanding that it would not be done. Dr. Mohammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. (Ref "31"), The question arises, if Pakistan was created for the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent to enable them to order their lives in accordance with the tenets of Islam, why Muslims were not allowed to migrate to Pakistan from every part of India? Overpopulation, inflation and unemployment is the major problem of Pakistan country. About 40% of the population is already living under … Pakistan was also faced with problem of the lack of financial skills of expertise. Muhammad Ali, The Emergence of Pakistan, p. 221. The first is the very onerous and responsible task of framing our future constitution of Pakistan and the second of functioning as a full and complete sovereign body as the federal legislature of Pakistan. (Ref "42"), Abul Kalam Azad stated from personal knowledge that some members of the former undivided Indian Army killed Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan and Muslims in India. Philip Ziegler, Mountbatten: the official biography, London 1985, p. 443. Problems of access, quality, infrastructure and inequality of … Mountbatten did nothing (took no concerted action) against the Hindu-Sikh leaders who indulged in open incitement to violence against the Muslims. More were drowned than slaughtered and very few could reach Pakistan. Search Results. cit,., Vol. Military action in Kathiawar may lead to war between the two Dominions and with the bulk of the army involved no internal security, the army is in no position to wage war. (Ref "68"), Though the Ruler of Junagadh had declared the accession of his State with Pakistan, its Dewan, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, handed over the administration of the State to Indian pending negotiations. All they did was to send 7,000 tons of food grains to feed the starving population of Junagadh and Manavadar despite the occupation of the latter by Indian forces. He alone could inspire hope in moments of despair and galvanise the people to a mighty concerted effort to overcome the odds and difficulties with their path in the beginning was beset. Tens of thousands had died on the road of starvation and disease, or had been killed by Sikh murder gangs. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India wins Freedom, Calcutta 1959, p. 202. The Punjab Boundary Force, containing both Muslim and non-Muslim troops and commanded by British senior officers, was utterly incapable of maintaining peace. Upon arrival, there were no offices so interim offices were set up in barracks and public buildings just to kick things off. They lost control of their states, even their own assets, in a few years and their states were absorbed into the contiguous state provinces of the Indian Union. He paid little heed to the principle underlying the partition of India ‘when he accepted the accession to Indian dominion of Kapurthala which had Sikh rulers but 64 per cent of the population was Muslim’'. Pakistan also needed armed forces and military equipment to ensure its security. (Ref "22"), The Lahore Resolution of 1940 had laid down that geographically contiguous areas should be demarcated into regions to form the new states. 1.Education System is based on. Education Problems In Pakistan Search. cit. Rushbrook Williams points out: Quaid-i-Azam and Early Problems of Pakistan Iqtidar Karamat Cheema . (Ref "132"). There was obviously much more on sound lines to do and the government had to find means to build the army with the help of military experts. (Ref "106"), It appears that Mountbatten and Indian leaders were determined to make Pakistan a weak and feeble state, to be at the mercy of India. All of them were either killed or driven out. It contended that since Junagadh had lawfully acceded to Pakistan, so neither the Dewan nor even the Ruler himself could negotiate a settlement with India. The total capital under flight is estimated at Rs. Quaid-i-Azam strongly condemned both these trends as the negation of the very principle on which Pakistan was claimed and achieved. Relations with India • The early years of independence were dominated by Pakistan's problems with India on the one hand, and the efforts to introduce the new state to the world community on the other. K.B. A basic […] Maternal and child health is one of the serious health issues in Pakistan which needs immediate action. As the Governor – General of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam had to negotiate an instrument of accession with each of the states wishing to join the country. Typewriters and telephones, and at times, even the most ordinary supplies, like pens pencils papers, desks and chairs, were not easily available. “Continually subjected by the political leaders of India to deceitful and underhand interference which amounted in the end, to complete sabotage….Even the fundamental responsibilities of Government to bring the civil war, slaughter and destruction to an end and restore law and order – they (the Indian leaders) regarded as of secondary importance. Your email address will not be published. the Northwest Frontier Province) was on the borders of the sub-continent and has not been linked to the industrialization that had taken place in central India. Enumerating the problems which Pakistan had to face in this regard he said, “Unfortunately, the birth of Pakistan was attended by a holocaust unprecedented in history. There were/are so many factors which became the causes of failure of national integration in Pakistan. But Pakistan was to face many more problems than India. Pakistan, populous and multiethnic country of South Asia. Speaking on the occasion of the foundation-stone laying ceremony of the Valika Taxtile Mills, Quaid-i-Azam emphasized the need for industrialization in these words: “Pakistan, at present mostly an agricultural state and for manufactured goods it is dependent upon the outside world”. (Ref "95"), Since Pakistan was placed in a miserable and deplorable condition after independence, so, if the Indian leaders in general and Mountbatten in particular, had tried to help Pakistan at the crucial time, it would have been appreciated not only by the Pakistanis statesmen, politicians and public but by the whole world at large. As one historian has since stated: ‘Most of the leaders of the Indian National Congress thought that Pakistan was not a viable state politically, economically, geographically or militarily and that sooner or later India would re-unite. Some of these pieces were of high quality but these were few in relation to the rest. Pakistan’s economy is facing its adverse condition due to lot of reasons. Pakistan must build up her Air Forces as quickly as possible. This led to the more orderly evacuation of refugees from one country to the other, but it did not completely end the violence. Dr. Mohammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. (Ref "118"), Hastily constructed tin sheds provided the bulk of office accommodation. So began one of the largest migrations ever witnessed in the history of making and also some of eh worst scenes of communal violence. Dr. Muhammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. India’s military action against these states amounted to a direct attack and aggression against Pakistan which the latter could reply by force. But the problems created by a partition are exemplified by the fact that, in 1947, Pakistan did not have a single jute mill. To permit your subject or subjects of any State which acceded to the Indian Dominion to carry on these subversive activities constitutes a breach of the Constitutional and international obligations imposed on the Government of India. India had officials, members of the Indian National Congress, with the political experience to take over the government. The Hindus feeling that Pakistan need not have emerged at all is important politically, because it shaped the Indian attitude and influenced Indian behavior, towards Pakistan, not only in the early critical days…..but in the later years. Menon, secretary to the concerned department, and the cunning of Sardar Patel, the minister in charge, the accession of the states of India continued and the fear of possible balkanization of India was put to rest. For many, Eid will be not an occasion of such great joy and rejoicing as in Pakistan. Immediately after independence, Pakistan has to deal with a massive refugee problem: while 5.3 million Hindus fled from Punjab and Sindh into India, 5.9 million Muslims fled from India into West Pakistan. Pakistan was not a wealthy country and its major activity, agriculture, did not produce a sufficient surplus to create the wealth needed for industrialization. Pakistan is once again passing through a critical phase of its history marked by political instability and serious economic problems. cit. When the Muslim refugees from West Punjab told their tales of woe, a wave of strong indignation spread throughout the country. A Pakistani Gurdaspur would surely be the signpost pointing towards a Pakistani Jammu and Kashmir”. The New York times, 10 September, 1948. 124 – 25. Not surprisingly, it was extremely difficult for these people to be accommodated. (Ref "80"), The Quaid-i-Azam had offered Jodhpur the best terms: use of Karachi as a free port; free import of arms; jurisdiction over the Jodhpur-Hyderabad (Sindh) railway; and supply of grain to famine threatened districts on the condition that Jodhpur would declare its independence on August 15, 1947 and then join Pakistan. Menon drew up an instrument of accession for defence, external affairs, and communications and a standstill agreement to cover existing arrangements for customs, currency, and similar matters. The debt burden has long been a very serious problem for Pakistan, but was especially so in the 1990s. Thank you for sharing. Pakistan was mainly made up of five different groups: These people had different traditions, cultures, languages, and lifestyles. Impressed with the spirit of enthusiasm of Pakistan, the Muslims from all over India, particularly from Delhi Province and the Western district of U.P. Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are of much importance than any other sector. Arrangements were made to bring in former Indian officials who had opted for Pakistan. As you are aware, the Prime Minister has shifted his headquarters to Lahore and we have set up an Emergency Committee of the cabinet of deal with the situation as it develops from day to day”. Those of our brethren who are minorities in Hindustan may rest assured that we shall never neglect or forget them. Most of the three million people who died during the great famine of Bengal of 1943 were from the landless population. The report of the Supreme Commander Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck to the British Prime Minister, Mr. Attlee reveals: You will see traffic jams on the roads at morning and evening timings. (Ref "69"), The Indian Government had encouraged neighboring Hindu State which had acceded to India to create trouble on the borders of Kathiawar States, including Junagadh. The Pakistan Times, 3 January 1948, p. 3a. However, Jinnah said it was in the mutual interest of the states and dominion governments to make necessary adjustments. Although Pakistan was created to unite the Muslim population of the old British India, it did not have natural borders, such as rivers, mountains or the sea. It was only after Gandhi went on a hunger strike that a further 500 million rupees were paid. The award also threw the hydroelectric and canal system of the undivided Punjab out of order. Post Independence Problems. Indian help came only after the maharaja agreed to accede to India. Dr. Muhammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. It was the moral and legal obligation of the British Government in general and Mountbatten as the last Viceroy in particular to ensure the supply of its due share of assets to Pakistan-military stroes as well as cash balances. On some branches of the railway system in West Pakistan, services had to be suspended because of the shortage of coal. Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. The first problem Pakistan had to face was choosing an administrative Capital city to form and establish a government. Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. (Ref "105"), India released only items of general nature, including a considerable amount of perishable ones, unwanted and obsolete quantities of anti-gas and water-proofing equipment, shoes and boots meant either for Gurkhas or West Africans, and other personal equipment, either too small or too big for the use of Pakistani soldiers. I still firmly believe that you Government through the good offices of Lord Mountbatten the Governor-General, can exert sufficient morals and material influence to bring about an honourable and amicable settlement between the Dominion of India and Hyderabad without impairing the dignity of my house and my people and without putting my State to material disadvantage. Pakistan was formed in 1947 and meanwhile its establishment or starting point of an organization or action, it has been surrounded by frequent issues including but not limited such as substructure, inadequate refined resources, unfertile or obsolete factories and knowhow about new technology, imposed battles at Kashmir and other facades poverty, inflation and many other … For them Pakistan was only a transient phase, a tactical treat that did not affect their strategic aims. In 1947, some of them, particularly the Balochs and the Bengalis, were sure they now wanted to transfer allegiance to a new Pakistan. (PDF) Difficulties and problems faced in establishment of Pakistan | Ahmad Iftikhar - Academia.edu Pakistan was established in 1947 and since its inception, it has been surrounded by countless issues including but not limited to ill-formed/missing infrastructure, insufficient refined resources, barren or obsolete factories and technologies, (Ref "44"), In addition to the problems of maintaining law and order and preventing Muslims from attacking the minority community, the West Punjab Government was soon saddled with an equally difficult task for rehabilitating refugees who had already started pouring in thousands into West Punjab. In 1947, of the 1,500,000 cotton bales produced, only went to the mills on Pakistani territory. (Ref "11"), Rushbrook Williams points out: So without any doubt, from the above mentioned discussion we come to the conclusion that early childhood education holds great importance and significance for making the child future brighter. cit. Keeping democratic institutions strong; Pakistan has faced major challenges in its socioeconomic situation over past seventy years. John Connell had made the following comments on the pressure of Indian leaders on Auchinleck in the following words: Auchinleck was: Abdul Kalam, Azad, India Wins freedom, p. 226. It was very difficult for me because my examed so near I search you your website and see your article ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN PAKISTAN ABSTRACT Owing to rapid industrialization, environmental problems in sectors such as water, air, waste, energy and forestry in Pakistan are reaching a crisis point. Though in East Pakistan, she produced 70 percent of the world’s jute, she did not possess a single jute mill except a few babing-presses. The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict over the Kashmir region, primarily between India and Pakistan, with China playing a third-party role. Agriculture by which 80 percent of the population lived, was still carried on by antiquated and inefficient methods in which mechanization played no part at all. (Ref "63"), On 16th September 1947, the day after the accession, the Prime Minister of Junagadh addressed a letter to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, making an earnest appeal for help by lodging a strong protest with the Indian Government to prevent invasion of its areas, by providing actual armed assistance in the form of immediate landing of a fighter or a bomber with a spare Dakota on its air fields at Keshod and sending a battalion, equipped with modern arms by sea to Veraval. But the Pakistani ruling clique ignored this reality and planned to Introduce Urdu as the state language of entire Pakistan. Partition unleashed untold misery and loss of lives and property as millions of Hindu and Muslim refugees fled either Pakistan or India. The administrative machinery inherited by Pakistan, consists of nothing but bits and pieces. Acute respiratory infection is the leading cause of death in children of Pakistan. The popular belief in India at the time of declaration of the Award was that “Radcliffe will award as His Excellency dictates. In 1998, Pakistan was hovering on the brink of default. The EFA goals focus on early childhood care and education including pre-schooling, universal primary education and secondary education to youth, adult literacy with gender parity and quality of education as crosscutting thematic and programme priorities. A large area in West Punjab was dependent for its electricity needs upon the Mandi Hydroelectric Works in East Punjab. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. We had urged in vain that the Government servants should be compelled to stay on where they were arguing that there was no reason why those who could serve a foreign Government, could not serve their own. If Pakistan stopped fighting and agreed that Kashmir should be an Indian possession, then the rest would be paid. (Ref "14"), But Radcliffe’s final Award had “illegally and unjustifiably deprived Pakistan of a number of contiguous Muslims majority areas. Muslim and non-Muslim members were equally represented in these commissions. The primary completion rate in Pakistan, given by Date Center ofUNESCO, is 33.8% in females and 47.18% in males, which shows that people in the 6th largest country of the world are unable to get the basic education. Some of the Afghan patriots tried to take advantage of the opportunity to bid for a wide belt of territory along the frontier on the grounds that the British tile it had not been based on solid grounds, while some of the hostile Pathans of the boundary region wished to avail themselves of the Civil Chaos in the Plains to engage in looting. Dr. Mohammad Zahid Khan Lodhi, op. The Morning News, Dhaka, 06 December, 1947. The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat,Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan.Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General,Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected.Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from … More horrible than anything we saw during the war, is the universal comments of experienced officers, British and Indian, on the present slaughter in east Punjab. (Ref "144"), Rail and road communications were also poor and ill-developed. When the new nation of Pakistan emerged, There wer4e only a few district-level secondary schools. (Ref "12"), Alastair Lamb in his work also admits: In the absence of such settlement, I foresee a great deal of internal and external disorders, bloodshed and chaos such as now prevalent in the East and West Punjab and other parts of India which can indeed even now be avoided in Hyderabad. Auchinleck, in his farewell letter to Major-General Rees, stated ‘the whole movement was undoubtedly planned long beforehand and soon gave rise to inevitable repercussions in the West Punjab’'. Population growth rate is 2.1 % and in the list of most populous countries, Pakistan is at 6 th number. This Standstill Agreement, however, unfortunately, never came to be observed in spirit or letter by the Indian Union…..I hope this matter will receive the British government’s and in particular Mr. Attlee’s and you (Bevin’s) sympathetic and immediate consideration. Though local purchases were made, yet there were great shortages. Pakistan is once again passing through a critical phase of its history marked by political instability and serious economic problems. (Ref "67"), The letter and Shah Nawaz Bhutto’s behaviour encouraged the Indian Government which promptly occupied Junagadh by force. Instead he cut short. Required fields are marked *. The staggering burden of military expenditures occasioned by the cold war with India – which became hot for a brief period in Kashmir – diverted funds from essential nation-building services like health, education, and irrigation. (Ref "133"), Even before partition, doubts had continually been cast on its economic and financial viability. I’m satisfied that you just shared this useful information with us. The violence was sometimes orchestrated by the local authorities, and many Muslim historians believe that Hindus and Sikhs had an organized program for the massacre of Muslim refugees. It established its capital at Karachi, which had become a provincial capital only ten years previously. The 1970 General Elections and its Aftermath, Political Mobilization and Events Leading to Independence of Bangladesh, Problems of National Integration between East and West Pakistan. In Gurdaspur District, two contiguous Muslims Majority tehsils, Gurdaspur and Batala, were given to Bharat alongwith Pathankot tehsil. If the Indian leaders, on account of their rivalry and antagonistic attitude towards Pakistan, obstructed the work of division of military assets, it was the legal as well as moral duty of Mountbatten and Auchinleck to carry on the process till Pakistan received its just share. She possessed neither the proper equipment nor the trained personnel. (Ref "74"), So on this crucial question, whether Pakistan should render any military assistance to Junagadh, or reoccupy the State from the Indian hold, the expatriate Britishers, particularly Vice – Admiral Jefford had played a significant role in the foreign policy behaviour of Pakistan. Unlawful customs b. Feudalism c. Crimes against women d. Domestic violence e. Outdated and perennial culture f. Forced and early marriages g. After pressure from Lord in Kashmir to determine the wishes of the people, once the situation has normalized. The fact of the matter was that what Pakistan had already committed to accept (i.e. 11 – Acute Respiratory Infection – Top 15 health issues in Pakistan. In terms of producing skilled manpower, the lack of opportunities for mass educations appeared to be another important social issue before the new state. Pakistan has different opportunities which can help it to solve its economic problem. Civil officials and others have persistently tried to obstruct the work of partition of Armed Forces….Their aim is to prevent Pakistan receiving her just share, or indeed anything of the large stocks of reserve arms, equipment, stores held in the arsenals and depots in India. (Ref "41"), In September 1947, widespread violence and disturbance broke out against Muslims in Delhi, forcing a large number of them to flee to Pakistan, particularly to Karachi which was swarming with refugees from Delhi. It presented the first major challenge to Pakistan. (Ref "20"), Perhaps its object was to make Pakistan not economically a viable state. Even the minimal requirements of a working central government-skilled personnel, equipment, and capital city with government buildings were missing. Liaquat to the British Prime Minister, Telegram No. In the course of the colonial period, many peasants became landless. Ferozepur contained the headworks of one of the most important canals in the Punjab which was of vital importance for this agricultural country. Radcliffe “Knew virtually nothing about India and had never written about it”. A review of the education system of Pakistan suggests that there has been little change in Pakistan’s schools since 2010, when the 18th Amendment enshrined education as a fundamental human right in the constitution. In 1948, there were only 211 doctors and 2,825 hospital beds in east Bengal. (Ref "64"), The Indian Government also stopped food, petrol and all communications, mail, telegraphic, telephonic, between Junagadh State and the outside world in order to starve the State into submission. Mahajan, Mehr, Chand, Looking Back; The Autobiography, Bombay, 1963, p. 114. The armed forces personnel were given the freedom to opt for whichever country they wanted. 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