There are no reliable estimates of their total population, with estimates ranging from several hundred thousand to 3.5 million.[219][220][221]. [165], The authorities are accused of arresting democracy and human rights activists, censoring websites, detaining bloggers, and imposing travel bans. Authoritarianism in Syria. [242], There are 6 state universities in Syria[243] and 15 private universities. The most popular sports in Syria are football, basketball, swimming, and tennis. Like the Nubians, they come with animals, in this case horses, an elephant, and a bear; they also offer weapons and vessels most likely filled with precious substance." [200], Syria's petroleum industry has been subject to sharp decline. [140], As a result of the ongoing civil war, various alternative governments were formed, including the Syrian Interim Government, the Democratic Union Party and localized regions governed by sharia law. Most Kurds (8.5%)[226] and most Turkoman (3%)[226] are Sunni and account for the difference between Sunnis and Sunni Arabs, while 13% of Syrians are Shia Muslims (particularly Alawite, Twelvers, and Ismailis but there are also Arabs, Kurds and Turkoman), 10% Christian[225] (the majority are Antiochian Greek Orthodox, the rest are Syrian Orthodox, Greek Catholic and other Catholic Rites, Assyrian Church of the East, Armenian Orthodox, Protestants and other denominations), and 3% Druze. [127] The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.64/10, ranking it 144th globally out of 172 countries.[128]. [183] The Syrian economy has contracted 60% and the Syrian pound has lost 80% of its value, with the economy becoming part state-owned and part war economy. Arabic – made official under Umayyad rule[62] – became the dominant language, replacing Greek and Aramaic of the Byzantine era. Around the 14th century BC, various Semitic peoples appeared in the area, such as the semi-nomadic Suteans who came into an unsuccessful conflict with Babylonia to the east, and the West Semitic speaking Arameans who subsumed the earlier Amorites. However, the treaty never came into force because the French Legislature refused to ratify it. Rollinger, Robert (2006). [203], The road network in Syria is 69,873 kilometres (43,417 miles) long, including 1,103 kilometres (685 miles) of expressways. The Mamluk leader, Baibars, made Damascus a provincial capital. [21][22] However, from the Seleucid Empire (323–150 BC), this term was also applied to The Levant, and from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant. With the destruction of the Hittites and the decline of Assyria in the late 11th century BC, the Aramean tribes gained control of much of the interior, founding states such as Bit Bahiani, Aram-Damascus, Hamath, Aram-Rehob, Aram-Naharaim, and Luhuti. From its home on the banks of the Napa River in Calistoga, California, Holy Assumption Monastery welcomes faithful pilgrims and visitors of all backgrounds. 53 on 21 April 2011. By 1840, however, he had to surrender the area back to the Ottomans. [135] According to the 2012 constitution, the president is elected by Syrian citizens in a direct election. [167][168] [136] On 7 May 2012, Syria held its first elections in which parties outside the ruling coalition could take part. Damascus was made the major entrepot for Mecca, and as such it acquired a holy character to Muslims, because of the beneficial results of the countless pilgrims who passed through on the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.[69]. This border was recognized internationally when Syria became a League of Nations mandate in 1920[72] and has not changed to date. [55], The Aramaic language has been found as far afield as Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain,[56] with an inscription written by a Palmyrene emigrant at the site of Fort Arbeia. "Arab League delegates head to Syria over 'bloodbath'. Syrians' taste for the traditional arts is expressed in dances such as the al-Samah, the Dabkeh in all their variations, and the sword dance. Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history. [60], William Montgomery Watt claims that this was the most significant expedition Muhammad ordered at the time, even though it received little notice in the primary sources. Some Syrian dishes also evolved from Turkish and French cooking: dishes like shish kebab, stuffed zucchini/courgette, and yabraʾ (stuffed grape leaves, the word yabraʾ deriving from the Turkish word yaprak, meaning leaf). He returned to Syria in 1937 after the signing of the Syrian-French Treaty. Amharic book categories such as Amharic Biography Books, Amharic History Books, Amharic Fiction Books, Amharic Reference Books, Amharic Audio Books, Amharic Teacher Aids Books, Amharic Children Books, Amharic Tracts Books, Amharic Marriage and Family Books, Amharic Islam Books, Amharic Articles, Amharic Magazines, Amharic Scriptures, Amharic Old Testament Studies, Amharic New Testament Studies, Amharic Doctrines, Amharic Apologetics, Amharic Prophecy, Amharic Christian Life Books, Amharic Church History Books, Ethiopian Orthodox Church Books, Ethiopian Tewahedo Orthodox Church Books...Oromo Books, Oromiffa Books, Tigrinya Books, Sidama Books, Amharic Books Online PDF for FREE, Gurage Books, Wolaita Books... Disclaimer: We do not claim to own any of these books, they were sourced through the help of the Lapsley/Brooks Foundation and thier collaboration with the following copyright holders: Moody Press, Baker Book House, Intervarsity Press, Ethiopian Bible Society,SIM Press, Kale Hiwot Publishing, Raey Publishing, American Bible Society, Paul Enns, Stan Gundry, Bob Thomas, Dallas Theological Seminary, African Christian Publishers, Tyndale House Publishers, and Zondervan Press. Arabs are the largest ethnic group, and Sunnis are the largest religious group. [229], Christians (1.2 million), a sizable number of whom are found among Syria's population of Palestinian refugees, are divided into several sects: Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox make up 45.7% of the Christian population; the Catholics (Melkite, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Maronite, Chaldean Catholic and Latin) make up 16.2%; the Armenian Apostolic Church 10.9%, the Syriac Orthodox make up 22.4%; Assyrian Church of the East and several smaller Christian denominations account for the remainder. Through this, the Hatay Province of Turkey was formed. Yet after Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000, Hezbollah claimed that the withdrawal was not complete because Shebaa was on Lebanese – not Syrian – territory. [45] The army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam (modern Iran). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. From these coastal regions, they eventually spread their influence throughout the Mediterranean, including building colonies in Malta, Sicily, the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), and the coasts of North Africa and most significantly, founding the major city state of Carthage (in modern Tunisia) in the 9th century BC, which was much later to become the center of a major empire, rivaling the Roman Empire. Syria received significant financial aid from Arab states of the Persian Gulf as a result of its participation in the Persian Gulf War, with a sizable portion of these funds earmarked for military spending. [237] During the Syrian Civil War many of Syria's artists, poets, writers and activists have been incarcerated, and some have been killed, including famed cartoonist Akram Raslam.[238]. [38], Ebla was weakened by a long war with Mari, and the whole of Syria became part of the Mesopotamian Akkadian Empire after Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin's conquests ended Eblan domination over Syria in the first half of the 23rd century BC.[39][40]. Eventually parts of southern Seleucid Syria were taken by Judean Hasmoneans upon the slow disintegration of the Hellenistic Empire. [130] The legislature, the Peoples Council, is the body responsible for passing laws, approving government appropriations and debating policy. [147], The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces, comprising some 400,000 troops upon mobilization. Since then, General Assembly resolutions on "The Occupied Syrian Golan" reaffirm the illegality of Israeli occupation and annexation. The country also has 900 kilometres (560 miles) of navigable but not economically significant waterways. Since the ongoing civil war of 2011, and associated killings and human rights abuses, Syria has been increasingly isolated from the countries in the region, and the wider international community. In the early 1980s, light-grade, low-sulphur oil was discovered near Deir ez-Zor in eastern Syria. [189] Long-run economic constraints include foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution. Syria was once home to a substantial population of Jews, with large communities in Damascus, Aleppo, and Qamishii. The Mongols of the Ilkhanate took Aleppo in October 1280, but Qalawun persuaded Al-Ashqar to join him, and they fought against the Mongols on 29 October 1281, in the Second Battle of Homs, which was won by the Mamluks.[65]. The earliest recorded indigenous civilization in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla[29] near present-day Idlib, northern Syria. Syrian cuisine is rich and varied in its ingredients, linked to the regions of Syria where a specific dish has originated. Syria is one of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called "cradle of civilization". The Code of Personal Status is applied to Muslims by sharia courts. The government began to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but those reforms were slow and ad hoc, and have been completely reversed since the outbreak of conflict in 2011. [196], Revenues from tourism have dropped dramatically, with hotel occupancy rates falling from 90% before the war to less than 15% in May 2012. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the region before the advent of Arabic, and is still spoken among Assyrians, and Classical Syriac is still used as the liturgical language of various Syriac Christian denominations. ", CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Heydemann, Steven. The fate of the intermediate province of Zor was left unclear; its occupation by Arab nationalists resulted in its attachment to Syria. From 1864, Tanzimat reforms were applied on Ottoman Syria, carving out the provinces (vilayets) of Aleppo, Zor, Beirut and Damascus Vilayet; Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon was created, as well, and soon after [75] His election saw the birth of the Damascus Spring and hopes of reform, but by autumn 2001, the authorities had suppressed the movement, imprisoning some of its leading intellectuals. [149] About 20,000 Syrian soldiers were deployed in Lebanon until 27 April 2005, when the last of Syria's troops left the country after three decades. Syria (Arabic: سوريا ‎, romanized: SÅ«riyā), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية ‎, romanized: al-JumhÅ«rÄ«yah al-Ê»ArabÄ«yah as-SÅ«rÄ«yah), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. On 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad implemented a new constitution, which led to a national crisis. Article 75(1)2)(4)", "Decrees on Ending State of Emergency, Abolishing SSSC, Regulating Right to Peaceful Demonstration", "Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat", "Syria conflict: UK recognises opposition, says William Hague", "Syria: France backs anti-Assad coalition", "Obama says U.S. will recognize Syrian opposition", "Συρία: Βουλευτικές εκλογές για την διαπραγματευτική ενίσχυση Άσαντ", "Εκλογές στη Συρία, ενώ η εμπόλεμη κατάσταση παραμένει", "Syria reduces compulsory military service by three months", "Assad takes a page out of Russia's book in his war against rebels", General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, "CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007,, "Political foe of Syrians wounded on Beirut street", "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report", "More than 250 children among dead, U.N. says", "UN report: Syrian forces commit 'gross violations' of human rights, CNN", "200 massacred in Hama, claim Syrian activists", "Iran warns west against military intervention in Syria", "Christians Squeezed Out by Violent Struggle in North Syria", "Syria: Sunnis Threatening to Massacre Minority Alawites", "US launches missiles into Syria in response to chemical weapons attack", "Deadly nerve agent sarin used in Syria attack, Turkish Health Ministry says", "AT&T – 4G LTE, Cell Phones, U-verse, TV, Internet & Phone Service", "The Syrian Electronic Army Are at Cyber War with Anonymous", "Syria regime revenues shrink as losses mount", "Syria's economy cut in half by conflict", "Syria Weighs Its Tactics as Pillars of Its Economy Continue to Crumble", "Economic Challenges and Reform Options for Syria: A Growth Diagnostics Report", "Syria reverts to socialist economic policies to ease tension", "Syria's battling economy may hold on with help from friends", "Syria's ailing economy hits citizens and regime", "Syrian Economy To Shrink By 20 Percent in 2012 As Country Struggles With War", "Syrians struggle with shortages as economy buckles", "The Syrian Economy: Hanging by a Thread", "Isil seizes Syrian regime's lucrative phosphate mines", "IS blows up Syria gas pipeline serving capital: monitor", "String of losses in Syria leaves Assad regime increasingly precarious", "Syria raises fuel prices to snuff out black market, soothe unrest", "How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria", "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations", "Population Existed in Syria According To Censuses (1960, 1970, 1981, 1994, 2004) And Estimates of Their Number in Mid Years 2005–2011(000)", "U.N.: Syria Crisis Is 'Biggest Humanitarian Emergency of Our Era, "Syrian refugees top 3 million, half of all Syrians displaced – U.N.", "Demographic Data of Registered Population", "Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations", "In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link", "Syria's Assyrians threatened by extremists – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East", "Turkey-Syria deal allows Syriacs to cross border for religious holidays", "UN refugee agency welcomes Brazil announcement of humanitarian visas for Syrians", "Inmigracion sirio-libanesa en Argentina",, "Death toll in Syria likely as high as 120,000: group", "Patriarch of Antioch: I will be judged if I do not carry the Church and each one of you in my heart", "Akram Raslan: How Caricatures Shake Tyranny", "Syria's Education System – Report – June 2001", "Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Damascus University", Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Aleppo University, May 2008, Orsam Suriye Türkleri Raporu-Orsam Syria Turks, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees,, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1946, Articles with dead external links from March 2017, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Phoenician-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with disputed statements from April 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favor of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. 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